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托福TPO-40 Lecture 4(下)

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Professor: It does sound good, but a lot of people are very wary of privatizing pieces of infrastructure and rightly so.
教授:听起来确实没问题,但很多人都对私有化部分基础设施表示担心,而他们理当有这种担忧。
For instance, in almost every case thus far, the first thing private companies do is drastically raise user fees because they say, "Oh, we must do critical maintenance that's gone undone for years and years.
比如说,在目前的几乎每个案例中,私营公司做的第一件事就是大幅度增加使用者费用,因为他们说“我们必须进行多年以来一直没做的重大维护。
And because we're a private company, we can't use tax money to do it. Our only option is raising tolls."
由于我们是私营公司,没法用税金来进行这些维护,所以我们唯一的选择就是提高通行费了。”
But what's the impact on people who use a toll road to get to work?
但是这对那些要经过收费道路去上班的人有什么影响呢?
What if a private owner doubles or triples the toll overnight?
万一私有者一夜之间把通行费翻一番或翻两番怎么办?
美国政府.jpgStudent: Uh, users would have to spend a higher percentage of their income on commuting.
学生:这样使用者就不得不把他们收入的更大一部分花在通勤上了。
Professor: And depending on their income, that percentage could be significant.
教授:而且根据他们的收入情况,那一部分可能很重要。
Student: But if tolls went up, me, I'd just avoid the toll road and take smaller back roads where there aren't any tolls.
学生:但是如果通行费涨了,是我的话,我会直接避开收费的道路,改走小一点的不收费的僻径。
Professor: That's a good point, secondary roads would become attractive to lots of other people too, and private companies know this.
教授:说的不错,支路也会吸引很多其他的人,而私营公司也知道这一点。
They also know that dramatic reductions in traffic would hurt their bottom line.
他们还知道交通的剧减会伤及他们的盈亏底线。
So market forces do play a role in keeping private companies from raising their tolls too much.
所以市场力量在防止私营公司增收太多通行费方面确实起着作用。
But the mere prospect of astronomical toll hikes is still alarming to governments when they think about selling or leasing parts of an infrastructure.
但是当政府考虑售卖或出租部分基础设施时,仅仅是会出现极大的通行费用上涨的可能性仍很令他们担忧。
Now, from a business standpoint, infrastructure purchases can be great investments.
从公司的角度来看,购买基础设施是很棒的投资。
If a company buys or gets a long-term lease on a toll bridge from the government, it's got an almost guaranteed steady source of revenue for years and years, which means that if the company decides it wants to sell the bridge to another company, say ten years from now, it'll have no problem finding a buyer.
如果一家公司从政府那里购买或长期租下了一座收费的桥,它就得到了一个几乎很多年有有保证的稳定收入来源,而这就意味着,如果这家公司决定向把这座桥卖给另一家公司,比如说十年,它很容易就能找到买家。
Student: But what if that buyer, this new owner, continues to charge a high toll but doesn't do the same amount of maintenance because they want to squeeze more money out of the assets?
学生:但是如果那个买家,也就是新的拥有者继续征收高额通行费,但是因为他们想从这座资产中榨取更多金钱,他们又不进行同等的维护的话怎么办?
Professor: In that case, could the governments buy the asset back?
教授:在那种情况下,政府能不能把这座桥买回去呢?
Well, to do that, it would have to raise money either by raising taxes or by selling bonds, both of which are politically sensitive.
要这么做的话,它必须要么通过增加税收要么抛售债券才能筹到钱,而这两者在政治上都很敏感。
So it's unclear in a practical sense whether these deals are truly reversible.
所以从现实意义上来说,这些交易是否真的可以撤销还不明确。
重点单词   查看全部解释    
option ['ɔpʃən]
想一想再看
n. 选择权,可选物,优先购买权
v. 给予选
联想记忆
sensitive ['sensitiv]
想一想再看
adj. 敏感的,灵敏的,易受伤害的,感光的,善解人意的
联想记忆
impact ['impækt,im'pækt]
想一想再看
n. 冲击(力), 冲突,影响(力)
vt.
联想记忆
source [sɔ:s]
想一想再看
n. 发源地,来源,原始资料
 
astronomical [.æstrə'nɔmikəl]
想一想再看
adj. 天文学的,巨大的
 
dramatic [drə'mætik]
想一想再看
adj. 戏剧性的,引人注目的,给人深刻印象的
联想记忆
squeeze [skwi:z]
想一想再看
v. 压榨,挤压,塞进
n. 压榨,勒索,榨取
 
overnight ['əuvə'nait]
想一想再看
n. 前晚
adj. 通宵的,晚上的,前夜的<
 
attractive [ə'træktiv]
想一想再看
adj. 有吸引力的,引起注意的
联想记忆
avoid [ə'vɔid]
想一想再看
vt. 避免,逃避
联想记忆
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