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人造重力为什么这么难

来源:可可英语 编辑:Alisa   VIP免费外教试听课 |  可可官方微信:ikekenet
You see it at like, all the movies.
你看,所有的电影里,
Either there's a space station that's a big spinning wheel
不管是有大转轮的空间站,
or there are spaceships that use some invisible technology so that somehow,
还是使用隐形技术的宇宙飞船,
even though the characters should be floating around because they're in space,
纵然是演员也应该漂着,因为他们在太空,
they're sticking firmly to the floor.
但他们都牢牢地粘在地面。
Artificial gravity is more than just convenient.
人造重力不仅仅是方便。
Weightlessness is bad for humans.
失重对人类有害。
It makes bones and muscles degrade, causes heart and vision problems, the list goes on.
它会使骨骼和肌肉退化,导致心脏和视力问题,还有很多麻烦。
So you'd think, after more than 50 years of spaceflight,
所以你想,经过了50多年的太空飞行,
we'd have come up with a way to make artificial gravity.
我们已经想出了制造人造重力的方法了吧。
But we haven't, cause it's hard.
但是没有,因为这很难。
The only practical way to make you feel like you're experiencing the full effects of gravity is by spinning.
只有经过旋转,我们才能真正感受到重力的全部影响。
You've probably seen this effect at an amusement park.
你可能在游乐园看到过这种效果。
A ride spins really fast like a centrifuge, making you stick to the walls?
游乐设施非常快速地旋转,就像离心机一样,让你粘在墙上?
That's because as the ride spins, centripetal forces are constantly pushing the wall towards you.
那是因为当它旋转的时候,向心力不断把墙推向你。
They're making you turn instead of just zoom off in a straight line.
它们让你转弯而不是直线飞走。
So if you sent a disc into space and set it up carefully enough,
所以,如果你把一个圆盘送入太空,并仔细设置它,
you could make it so that the centripetal acceleration was 9.8 meters/second squared, the same as Earth's gravity.
你可以让它的向心加速度达到9.8米/秒方,与地球重力相同。
That might sound pretty simple, but it's really not.
这听起来很简单,但实际不是这样。
space.pngFor one thing, the smaller your disc is,
首先,你的圆盘越小,
the faster you have to make it spin to achieve the same centripetal force,
为了达到相同的向心力,它转得就得越快,
but as you can probably imagine, living in a disc whirling around like a spinning top is not super comfortable.
但如你所想,生活在一个旋转的圆盘上,就像一个旋转的陀螺,并不是特别舒服。
If you want a useful artificial gravity habitat that spins slowly enough to be habitable,
如果你想要一个有用的人造重力栖息地,使它的旋转速度足够慢,能适合居住,
scientists estimate that it would have to be around 100m in radius.
科学家估计,它的半径必须在100米左右。
I'm talking about a structure that would be twice as big across as the International Space Station is long,
我说的是一个比国际空间站宽度大一倍的结构,
which would be incredibly expensive and time-consuming to build.
它将造价昂贵,建造非常耗时。
Even if you could build it, there would still be problems,
即使你建成了,还有其他问题,
because standing inside a spinning disc isn't exactly like standing on the ground.
因为站在旋转的圆盘上并不像站在地面上。
For one thing, your head would be closer to the center of the disc,
首先,你的头会更靠近圆盘中心,
so it would feel less of those centripetal forces.
所以它就感觉不到那么大的向心力了。
It would be like your head was experiencing less gravity than your feet,
你会感觉头轻脚重,
and the human body didn't evolve to handle that kind of thing.
而人类的身体并没有进化适应这样的事。
Your heart, for instance, would have to work harder to make sure that all your blood was distributed properly
例如,你的心脏需要更加努力地工作,以确保血液得到正确分配,
and not spending extra time drifting around in your head.
不会花额外的时间在你的脑子里游荡。
And if you bent down or even tilted your head to the side, you'd get super disoriented,
如果你弯腰甚至把头偏向一侧,你会变得非常迷失,
because the fluids that fill the internal gyroscope of your inner ear would suddenly be swirling in a different direction,
因为填充内耳内部“陀螺仪”的液体会突然向不同的方向旋转,
which makes me nauseous just thinking about it.
让我想想就作呕。
Still, figuring out a way to safely simulate gravity would be useful,
尽管如此,找到一种安全模拟重力的方法还是很有用的,
especially if we wanna send humans on long-distance trips to places like Mars.
特别是如果我们想让人类长途旅行到像火星这样的地方。
So researchers have been working on it for a long time.
所以研究人员已经研究很长时间了。
In 1966, astronauts of the Gemini 11 capsule actually tethered their craft to another ship, called the Agena Target Vehicle
在1966年,“双子座11号”太空舱的宇航员们实际把他们的飞船系在另一艘“阿金纳”对接舱上,
and set them spinning very slowly,
让它们慢慢旋转,
like one rotation every seven minutes, to see what would happen.
比如每七分钟旋转一次,看看会发生什么。
Turns out, it was enough to simulate only 5 ten-thousandths of Earth's gravity,
事实证明,这仅能模拟地球5万分之一的重力,
too small for the astronauts to even feel.
太小了,宇航员感受不到。
Much more recently, a mission concept was proposed in 2011 called Nautilus X,
更近些的消息,一个叫做“鹦鹉螺X”的任务概念在2011年被提出来,
a spacecraft that included a spinning disc designed to simulate gravity for astronauts onboard.
它是一种包括旋转圆盘的航天器,用于模拟宇航员在船上的重力。
But the mission was cancelled because of its costs, before the team could develop an effective centrifuge,
但是在团队开发出有效的离心机之前,由于成本原因,任务被取消了。
and in July 2015, engineers at MIT built a very small centrifuge
在2015年7月,麻省理工学院的工程师们建造了一个非常小的离心机,
meant to fit inside the ISS and be used mainly for exercise.
用来装进国际空间站,主要用于运动。
The researchers tested it on twelve people on Earth who used an exercise bike
研究人员在地球上的12个人身上进行了测试,他们使用健身自行车,
while being spun around at up 32 revolutions per minute.
每分钟旋转32圈。
They did experience motion sickness, as you might imagine,
你可能会想,他们确实经历了晕动病,
but it was mostly while the centrifuge was speeding up or slowing down.
但主要是在离心机加速或减速的时候。
With so many complications and so much research left to do,
有这么多的并发症,还有这么多的研究要做,
it'll probably be a while before we see spinning spaceships that can produce artificial gravity,
在我们看到能够产生人造重力的旋转宇宙飞船之前,可能还需要一段时间,
but when we do, astronauts will be in for a wild ride.
但当我们做到时,宇航员将会进行一个疯狂的旅程。
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space,
感谢您收看本期的太空科学秀,
and especially to our Patrons on Patreon, who help make this show possible.
特别感谢Patreon的大力赞助,帮我们制作节目。
If you wanna help support the show, go to Patreon.com/SciShow to learn more,
如果你想赞助本节目,请登录Patreon.com/SciShow了解更多信息,
and don't forget to go to YouTube.com/SciShowSpace and subscribe.
不要忘了登录YouTube.com/SciShowSpace点击订阅哦!
重点单词   查看全部解释    
acceleration [æk.selə'reiʃən]
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n. 加速,促进,加速度
 
simulate ['simjuleit]
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vt. 假装,模仿
联想记忆
produce [prə'dju:s]
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n. 产品,农作物
vt. 生产,提出,引起,
联想记忆
amusement [ə'mju:zmənt]
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n. 娱乐,消遣
 
swirling
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n. 漩涡;涡流 adj. 打旋的 v. 打旋;眩晕;使
 
gravity ['græviti]
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n. 重力,严重,庄重,严肃
联想记忆
centrifuge ['sentrəfju:dʒ]
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n. 离心分离机
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evolve [i'vɔlv]
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v. 进展,进化,展开
联想记忆
effective [i'fektiv]
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adj. 有效的,有影响的
联想记忆
minutes ['minits]
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n. 会议记录,(复数)分钟
 
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